Factors that contribute to injury. 25 factors identified in the literature/research

Count how many you may have and add the total score up, multiply by four. This gives you your risk of running injury. ie 10 factors= 40% or moderate chance of injury during training

#1-25 Injury Factors Assessment

1 Age >35yo

2 Weight vs Height >25BMI

3 Previous activity low 1-3 years prior

4 Previous activity low Last 12 months

5 Running History (1yr) Yes/No

6 Longstanding Injury Yes/No

7 Recent Injury (8 weeks) Yes/No

8 Rehab of past injury Yes/No

9 Discomfort or pain post run(s) Yes/No

10 Shoes Poor/Good

11 Surface Hardness Hard/Soft

12 Surface banked/sloped Yes/No

13 Multiple Hills/Downhills Yes/No

14 Weather >25C and <5C Yes/No

15 Running Clothing Appropriate?

16 Dynamic warm-up and cool down Yes/No

17 Hydration and fueling Appropriate?

18 Pace and rating of perceived exertion Ideal?

19 Distance >1/3 of weekly volume in one run Yes/No

20 Speedwork >2x week Yes/No

21 Volume >10% increase per-week Yes/No

22 Rest days/weeks and rehab Yes/No

23 Cross training Yes/No

24 Poor running form Yes/No

25 Competitiveness Yes/No

Total Risk Factors x4= % of running injury (

Running Injury Questionnaire

0-25%= Low Risk

25-50%= Low to Moderate Risk

50-75%= Moderate to High Risk

75-100%= High risk

Knee Pain

Have you ever suffered from knee pain?  You are not alone.  In fact, knee pain is one of the most common types of musculoskeletal pains in athletes. 

Typically, knee pain present on the front of the knee, under and below the knee-cap (patella), this is commonly referred to as patellofemoral pain or runner’s knee, accounting for 25% of knee pain in most athletes.  For example, in a sample of 1500 runners from the SunRun patellofemoral pain was the most common source of runner injury.

The pain can present with many different kinds of activities, some of which are:  sitting for long periods, running, jumping, and especially squatting.

What causes knee pain?

There are two general categories of factors that play into knee pain (1) factors below the knee and (2) factors contributing above the knee.

(1)    Numerous authors have explored the relationship between excessive or prolonged foot pronation during sports and increased stresses at the knee.

(2)    Hip abductors and external rotators of the hip (turn the leg outward) are weak and cannot stabilize the knee and direct forces going through the knee joint appropriately

How do I fix it?

Some evidence-based interventions for patellofemoral knee pain are:

1)      Protect, rest, ice, compression, and elevate

2)      Manual therapies and soft tissue therapy/acupuncture

3)      Hip stability exercises and core stability

4)      Kinesiology taping for short term

5)      Foot orthotics and knee braces for short term

6)      Anti-inflammatory creams such as Traumacare


Patellofemoral knee pain can be difficult to manage, it can become a chronic condition that may fail to respond to conservative care.  If you are struggling with consistent or chronic injury consult with a qualified practitioner such as your chiropractor, physiotherapist, or medical doctor. 


Be active, be healthy, and be injury free.  Cheers! 😊

 My favorite homeopathic pain relief cream:


Return to Running

How do I tell if I am ready to return to running after an injury? Most athletes will use the presence or absence of pain to assess whether they have healed completely.  Using pain as a sole outcome measure can be detrimental.  A more robust and detailed tool that assesses the runner’s biomechanics, pathomechanics, function, and pain is needed. 

The “running readiness scale” developed by Dr. Blaise Williams is a great tool to assess whether or not an individual is run ready.  The running readiness scale consist of five tests, all of which are one minute in duration and a 30 second rest between each exercise.  The five-step test is quite intense, it stresses many of the major muscles and tissues a runner will use.  It seems to be a simple, yet effective tool, that can confidently predict if you are ready to return to running.

The tests are as follows:

1) Hopping on both legs at 160 beats per minute tempo at 4 inches’ height
2) Plank (on elbows)
3) Single leg squats at moderate pace (30 seconds each leg)
4) 6-inch stair step-ups (leading with right leg 30 seconds and vice-versa) at a fast pace
5) 90-90 squat position with a Bosu-ball behind the back against the wall (held statically)

The runner must pass all five portions of the test.  Any significant loss of form, compensation, or pain is a fail.  If a runner is to fail this test its best to continue to rest, rehab, cross-train, and consult with their health professional. If you pass the test, remember to gradually ease your way back into running.

If you have any questions or feedback, feel free to contact me.

Happy running 😊

Note:  Dr. Blaise Williams is an Associate Professor in the Department of Physical Therapy and the Director of the Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) RUN LAB